Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Written by Deepak Bhagat, In Health, Published On
August 29, 2022
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The dysfunctionality of one or more of the four valves causes a specific type of heart disease known as valvular heart disease. If the valves in your heart are too frail, scarred, or otherwise damaged to heal, heart valve surgery may be required from the best heart surgery hospitals in Hyderabad. The heart is a muscular pump. It has two atria in the upper chambers and two ventricles in the lower sections, totaling four pumping chambers. Blood flows forward through the heart thanks to valves located between each of its pumping chambers.

The four heart valves are mitral, tricuspid, pulmonary, and aortic. The aortic and pulmonary valves have cusps flaps, while the mitral and tricuspid valves have leaflets. Flaps open and close once with each heartbeat, and blood flow from the heart to the body is disrupted when they don’t open or close properly.

The diseased or damaged valves are removed and replaced in heart valve repair or replacement surgery. Various surgical methods, such as open cardiac surgery or minimally invasive cardiac surgery, can be used to replace or repair heart valves. Your age, general health, and the sort and severity of your heart valve issue, among other factors, will determine the type of surgery necessary.

Types of Valve Replacement Surgery

Heart Valve Replacement Surgery

Ineffective valves are replaced with mechanical and biological valves. Mechanical valves are artificial parts that serve the same function as a heart valve. They are made of materials that the human body can tolerate well, such as carbon and polyester, with a lifespan of 10 to 20 years. Blood clots, however, are one of the dangers connected to mechanical valves; therefore, you are advised to take blood thinners. Here are a few types of valve replacement surgery.

Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery

As an outflow valve, the aortic valve is located on the left side of the heart. Its function is to open a route for blood to leave the left ventricle, the heart’s primary pumping chamber. It must be close to prevent blood from leaking back into the left ventricle. If you have a congenital problem or condition that results in stenosis or regurgitation, you might need surgery on your aortic valve.

Mitral Valve Replacement

The mitral valve is on the heart’s left side. It acts as a valve for inflow. Its primary function is to allow blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle. Mitral valve surgery can be necessary if the valve isn’t entirely open or closed. When the valve is excessively thin, blood may have difficulty entering. As a result, it might back up and pressure the lungs. In addition, blood can leak back into the lungs when the valve doesn’t close properly. This could be brought on by a congenital disability, an infection, or a degenerative disorder.

Double Valve Replacement

A double valve replacement involves replacing the mitral and aortic valves and the complete left side of the heart. The mortality rate is a little more significant for this kind of surgery because it is less common than the others.

Pulmonary Valve Replacement

The pulmonary valve splits the right ventricle, one of the heart’s chambers, from the pulmonary artery, which delivers blood to the lungs for oxidation. It opens the pulmonary artery, which directs blood from the heart to the lungs. Stenosis, which limits blood flow, is typically the cause of the need for pulmonary valve replacement. A congenital abnormality, an infection, or carcinoid syndrome can all lead to stenosis.

Who needs Heart Valve Replacement Surgery?

You need one if you have a leak, stiffness, or narrowing in your valve that could have evolved, or you could have been born with it. However, you should seek medical attention immediately if you exhibit symptoms of heart valve illness such as chest pain, trouble breathing and fainting.

The Procedure

Under general anesthesia, minimally invasive or traditional surgical methods are used to replace heart valves. The incision for traditional surgery extends from your neck to your navel. Therefore, the length of your incision may be shorter, and your risk of infection may be lower if you undergo less invasive surgery.

Your heart must be motionless for the surgeon to successfully remove the damaged valve and replace it with a new one. First, you’ll be put on a bypass machine to maintain your lungs and blood flow through your body during surgery. Then, the valves will be removed and replaced through incisions made in your aorta by your surgeon.

Recovery

Most people with valve replacement surgery stay in the hospital for five to seven days. However, you might be allowed to leave the hospital earlier if your procedure was minimally invasive. Medical personnel will provide painkillers as needed throughout the initial days following a heart valve replacement and continuously check your blood pressure, respiration, and heart function.

Full recovery takes a few weeks or perhaps several months, depending on how quickly you heal and the type of surgery you underwent. Maintaining sterility around your incisions is crucial since infection is the leading risk immediately following surgery. If you experience symptoms that point to an infection, you should always call your doctor straight soon.

The Final Word

In the early stages of heart valve disease, medications frequently help, but as the condition worsens, they become less effective. You don’t have to put off having surgery until your symptoms are intolerable. In some circumstances, having surgery before symptoms appear is preferable. Surgery is a significant decision that is based on your unique needs. You, your cardiologist, and your surgeon all have a say.

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